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By now you must have understood how important engineering is and how it has its roots in almost everything around us. How it have been able to retain its position and importance of being a respected and an elite career choice. Before proceeding further let’s first have a look at some of streams under engineering.
Engineering Stream in India
Aerospace Engineering is concerned with design, construction and study of the science behind the science and physical properties of aircraft, spacecraft, and rocket. This branch is also concerned with aerodynamics and other properties of aircraft such as lift, drag, behaviours and control surface. However, aeronautical engineering is completely different from various other fields of engineering and has its own importance. For instance the designing of engine and its compatibility is a part of mechanical engineering. Aerospace Engineering is further divided into two major branches: Astronautical Engineering and Aeronautical Engineering. While Astronautical engineering deals with the functioning and operating of the aircrafts outside the earth’s atmosphere, Aeronautical Engineering is concerned with functioning and operating of aircrafts within the earth’s atmosphere.
Agriculture Engineering is the engineering discipline concerned with application of engineering science and technology to agriculture production, improvement in present methods and processing. Agriculture engineering can be seen as combination of various disciplines such as animal biology, plant biology, mechanical and civil engineering. Principles of such fields are combined with knowledge of agriculture principles to improve upon the existing techniques for agriculture. Agriculture Engineers have many tasks to perform such as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation and drainage, overflow and water control systems, perform assessments in respect to environmental impact, processing of agricultural products, its processing and implement relevant practices. Both Government as well as private firms needs such engineers to process and interpret research results related to various projects. Some engineers are appointed as consultants, while others work in industry, for manufacturers of agricultural machinery, equipment, processing technology, and structures for housing livestock and storing crops. Agricultural engineers work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science.
Automobile engineering has been one of the most sought after career. Increasing demand and passion for vehicles has led to increased opportunities for vehicles automobile engineers in India as well as in abroad. Modern automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering that incorporates incorporating elements of electrical, electronic, mechanical, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
Automobile engineering deals with designing the vehicle, Manufacturing new products/ new vehicle, repairing, servicing vehicles. Innovation and dedication are vital to become a successful engineer. Automobile engineering is further divided into sub section such as studying motor systems, design and technology. Automobile engineer also includes product design engineer, development engineer and manufacturing engineer. Manufacturing engineer is concerned with design layout, manufacturing of safety products whereas product designer will design and test the systems of auto mobiles. Development engineers take care of the delivery of the vehicles and also about the customer satisfaction. The responsibility of the engineer of the automobile always consists of maintaining the greater level of the vehicle by the use of traditional methods and of the technology outpost. Recently, due to the fast growth of the industries of automobile in the country, the demand for the expert professionals has also increased considerably.
Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering is a combination of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering subjects for applied engineering. This is primarily an engineering course combining the electronics part for sensing and instrumentation engineering. The course is introduced in many universities across India.
The field of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering is growing at a very fast pace. Over the past three decades the field of instrumentation has seen an extremely widespread application in almost all discipline of engineering such as robotics, Textile, Mining & Metallurgy, Textile, Rolling Mills, Cranes & Hoists, Chemical Engineering, Arc Furnaces, Static Relays, and Process Controls. Application of Microprocessor / Microcontroller and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) Chip has revolutionized the field of Electrical and Electronic Instrumentation. These Microcontroller / DSP chips have virtually become the heart of modern instrumentation design. This new technology has resulted in more compact, accurate, versatile and faster response time, and is replacing the old systems.
Instrumentation engineers have to work in many industries such as petrochemical, pulp and paper industry, sales and services, oil refineries, gas plants, mining industry or consulting firms comprising engineering technologists, instrumentation technologists, control technicians, , control systems, ESD and F&G systems
Biotechnology or biotech is the use of living systems and organisms (Bio) along with technology to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity).
From centuries, mankind has used biotechnology in medicine, food production and agriculture. The term “biotechnology” is believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky. By the dawn of the 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include latest and diverse streams such as gene technology, genomics, applied immunology and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.
Biomedical engineering (BME) as the name suggests is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology. This field seeks to mend the gap between engineering and medicine. In other words it is a combination of the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences in healthcare treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, treatment and therapy.
it is recently that Biomedical engineering has emerged as a discipline in its own in comparison to already-established streams of engineering. Much of the work in biomedical engineering comprises research and development, sweeping a broad array of subfields. Development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biological are few prominent applications of biomedical engineering.
Chemical engineering is concerned with converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms by applying principles of physical sciences (such as chemistry and physics) and/or life sciences (such as biology, microbiology, and biochemistry) along with other branches such as mathematics and economics. However, in modern times the role of a chemical engineer is more diversified comprising exploration of valuable material and related techniques such as fuel cells ,bio medical engineering, nanotechnology. Chemical engineering can further be divided into two subgroups-
Chemical process engineers are concerned with designing, manufacturing and operating of plants as well as machinery and related processes.
Chemical product engineers are the ones concerned with development of new or adapted substances for products ranging from foods and beverages to cosmetics, cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients etc.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline concerned with designing, constructing and maintaining of the physical as well as natural surroundings that we see. Works like roads, bridges, canals, dams and buildings all represents the charisma of civil engineering. Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering. Civil engineering takes place on all levels be it the public sector from municipal to national governments or in the private sector from individual owners to multinational companies.
The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by architect Cesar Pelli and Thornton Tomasetti and Ranhill BersekutuSdnBhd engineers, were the world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004.The Eiffel Tower, designed by Gustave Eiffel, Ferdinand de Lesseps engineer for the Suez canal and Joseph Strauss Structural Engineer Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco are few of the famous engineers who have designed some of the greatest landmarks of civil engineering.
Computer Science or Computing Science is concerned with computation and its application to scientific as well as practical approach. A computer scientist is supposed to de an expert in the theory of computation, its application and the design of computational system. Computer science has many sub fields comprising both theoretical and practical disciplines. For instance, computational complexity theory which is concerned with the fundamental properties of computational problems is a highly abstract whereas fields such as computer graphics, computer networking are concerned with real world applications. Besides this there are other fields that focus on the challenges in implementation of various computation theories. Theory of programming language for instance takes into account various approaches to the description of computation while various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems is concerned with the study of computer programming. Universal accessibility of computers, usefulness as well as usability of the computation are few of the other challenges that a computer scientist need to tackle.
Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that deals with various aspects of electricity, electricity and derived fields such as electromagnetism. This field first got recognition as an occupation in the latter half of 19th century after, the electric graph, the telephone and electric power distribution and its use was commercialised. In its present glory it has a wide range of subfields such as electronics, digital computers, RF engineering, control systems, telecommunications, signal processing and power engineering.
One must not confuse with electronic engineering being a part of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering is concerned with the problems associated with electric power transmission and electrical machines, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of electronic systems such as radar, integrated systems, integrated circuits, communication systems, and computer. In other words, electrical engineering is basically concerned with use of electricity and its transmission whereas electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to process information.
Food Technology as the name suggests is use of technology to enhance the production process and make foods. Pasteurisation, enhancing shelf life of food, ready to eat food are few of the tasks food engineering is concerned with. Several companies in the food industry have played a pivotal role in the development of food technology. Following are few of the developments that have contributed greatly to the food supply.
• Instant Milk Powder - D.D. Peebles (U.S. patent 2,835,586) developed the first instant milk powder, which has become the basis for a variety of new products that are rehydratable in cold water or milk. This process increases the surface area of the powdered product by partially rehydrating spray-dried milk powder thereby increasing shelf life of the food.
• Freeze-drying – Pharmaceutical industry is most likely to be the first one to apply Freeze drying technique; however, a successful large-scale industrial application of the process was the development of continuous freeze drying of coffee.
• High-Temperature Short Time Processing - These processes for the most part are characterized by rapid heating and cooling, holding for a short time at a relatively high temperature and filling aseptically into sterile containers.
• Decaffeination of Coffee and Tea - Decaffeinated coffee and tea was first developed on a commercial basis in Europe around 1900. The process is described in U.S. patent 897,763. Green coffee beans are treated with steam or water to around 20% moisture. The added water and heat separate the caffeine from the bean to its surface. Solvents are then used to remove the caffeine from the beans. In the 1980s, new non-organic solvent techniques have been developed for the decaffeination of coffee and tea. Carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions is one of these new techniques. U.S. patent 4,820,537 was issued to General Foods Corp. for a CO2 decaffeination process.
Information Technology or IT as many people call it, is basically, storage, retrieval, transmission and manipulation of data by means of computers and telecommunications equipment. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, however technologies such as television and telephones also for an integral part of IT. Industries such as software, electronics, semiconductors, computer hardware, telecom equipment, electronics and e-commerce are also associated with information technology.
In the business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology (IT) as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems". Humans have been storing information from ancient era in different forms. This information then has been retrieved, manipulated and has been used for communication purpose by various civilization over the time. Sumerians from the Mesopotamian civilisation were the first one to develop writing. Over the years the modes and methods of storing of the information has changed. But, the term "Information Technology" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)."The Development in the IT can be traced back in the history based on the storage and processing technology employed in it. The four distinct phases in this context are:
- Pre-Mechanical (3000 BC - 1450 AD)
- Mechanical (1450 -1840)
- Electro-mechanical (1840 -1940)
- Electronic (1940 - present)
Instrumentation is defined as the “art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production or manufacturing area”. In other words Instrumentation Engineering is concerned with measurement.
Instrumentation engineering is basically concerned with controlling the systems of varied processes such as factories, refineries and big production plants. This control process is one of the main functions of applied instrumentation- one of the main branch of instrumentation engineering.
Similarly, output instrumentation comprises devices such as circuit breakers, valves, solenoids and relays. The basic function of these devices is to control the output so as to provide desired output. When this process is controlled remotely or by a controlled system it is referred to as final control elements. However, the Instrumentation engineering is not limited to huge manufacturing units but plays a vital role in making the surrounding safe and sound. For instance, a smoke detector is a common instrument found in most of the offices and western homes.
Transmitters are devices that produce an output signal, often in the form of a 4–20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, frequency, pressure, or ethernet are possible. This signal can be used for informational purposes, or it can be sent to a PLC, DCS, SCADA system, LabView or other type of computerized controller, where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system.
Marine Engineering is concerned with engineering of boats, oil rigs, ships, marine vessel and any other structure pertaining to marine. Specifically, marine engineering basically is the discipline concerned with application of engineering science, generally mechanical and electrical engineering. A marine engineer is supposed to apply his knowledge to the development and proper functioning of the ships and on-board systems. Specifically speaking a marine is engineer is supposed to do the tasks such as:
- The engineering of a vessel's propulsion system
- The engineering of shipboard systems and machinery
- A ship's engineering department, an organizational unit that is responsible for running the vessel's propulsion systems and support systems for crew, passengers and cargo; this field career track within marine engineering is, more specifically, referred to as seagoing engineering
- In limited and specific ship-related context, the engineering of structures to support vessels, see Marine architecture.
- Oceanographic engineering, also called marine electronics engineering, concerned with the design of electronic devices for use in the marine environment, such as the remote sensing systems used by oceanographers.
Mechanical Engineering is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines. It emerged as a filed in 18th century during theindustrial revolution in Europe.The development of other fields such as physics around the 19th further led to advancement in this field. Since, then this field has continually evolved to play a prominent role in the advancement in technology.
Basically, it is concerned with application of the principles of physics and material science for designing, manufacturing, analysis and maintenance of machinery or mechanical systems. This branch of engineering basically revolves around the design, production and operation of machines and tools using mechanical power.
Mechanical engineers use core concepts of science such as mechanics, kinematics, structural analysis, material science and thermodynamics along with, Information technology and other computer aided technology to design and analyse manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, artificial temperature controlling systems, war crafts, marine vessels. Mechanical engineering overlaps with other branches of engineering such as aerospace engineering, building services, civil engineering, marine engineering, electrical engineering and manufacturing engineering. Hence, it wouldn’t be wrong to conclude that mechanical engineering is basically linked with all the fields of engineering in some or the other way in varying degrees.
Metallurgy can be seen as a descendant of material science. Metallurgy comprises the study of physical as well as chemical behavior of metallic elements and its alloys. it can also be said as the technology of metals or more generally the way in which science is applied to its practical use. However it should not be confused with the craft of metalworking. Metallurgy is basically a subset of material science within a manufacturing engineering or mechanical engineering degree.
Plastic Technology is concerned with the production, manufacturing, development and analysis of plastic material for the purpose of design, prototyping and material evaluation.
The core engineering in plastic technology revolves around the reheat stretch blow molding process that aims at innovations in plastic material, its processing, output designing and quality assessment and at the same time ensu.re eco-friendly production methods.
Production engineering can be seen as a fusion between manufacturing technology and management science. A production engineers tasks includes application of engineering practices along with management to solve the challenges related to production. The aim is to achieve a viable production process in the most economically feasible way. However, a production engineer’s work is not limited to this but comprises wide array of tasks such as application of engineering knowledge to castings, joining processes, machining systems, machine tools, automation, jigs and fixtures and die and mould designing. Production engineering works coherently with manufacturing and industrial engineering.
Textile Engineering has gained its prominence over the years and is now one of a major industry. It comprises three tier conversions, of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric and finally textile. These are then fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products
Paint Technology as the name suggests is a discipline concerned with engineering of paint. This is a discipline where one learns about various ingredients such as polymers, resin and pigments that are used in making paint. The study of paint technology includes various tasks such as manufacturing of paints, use of various kinds of paints and techniques concerned with application of paints. One should be scientifically inclined so as to have a edge in learning concepts of paint technology.